Robert Rauschenberg

Born Milton Ernest Rauschenberg in Port Arthur, Texas on October 22nd to Dora Carolina Matson and Ernest Rauschenberg.

Attends University of Texas at Austin to study pharmacology.

Drafted into US Navy, drawing portraits for GIs to send home. Proclaims he does not want to kill anyone and is assigned to be a neuropsychiatric technician. Decides to become an artist.

Settles in Los Angeles working briefly as an illustrator for Westwood newspaper and as a packing clerk for Ballerina Bathing Suit factory where he meets Pat Pearman who convinces him he is a talented draftsman.

Changes his name from Milton to Bob after considering the most common names he could think of. Goes to Kansas City Art Institute at night, working in the day to save money to study in Paris.

Enrolls in Académie Julian in Paris on the GI Bill. Begins to paint passionately often dispensing with brushes and using his hands. Returns to US and enrols in Black Mountain College, Asheville, North Carolina where he is a student of Joseph Albers. At Black Mountain College meets composer John Cage and dancer choreographer Merce Cunningham for whom he has worked as a designer, manager and performer

Moves to New York and enrols in The Art Students League of New York, New York.

Marries Susan Weil. Approaches gallery owner Betty Parsons for a critique of his work. Parsons, who represents Pollock, Rothko and Newman, unexpectedly offers Rauschenberg a show in 1951.

Included in a window display by Gene Moore who will provide critical economical support for several years. Meets Cy Twombly, Leo Castelli and John Cage. Birth of son, Christopher. Exhibits in the Ninth Street Show, a show of about 61 artists conceived by members of the Club, which consolidates the movement that comes to be known as the New York School.

First exhibition in Europe at Galleria dell’Obelisco, Rome, where some of Rauschenberg’s boxes and hanging wall pieces are sold. Returns to New York and moves to downtown Manhattan in a formerly industrial building.

Reputation grows in Europe after a popular show in Paris and a series of articles in various magazines and newspapers.

Takes part in the XXXII Espozione Biennale Internazionale d’Arte in Venice.

Designs CORE poster marking the development of his direct political activism. Named the most important artist to have emerged Post World War II by a survey in Paris weekly newspaper, Arts.

Begins working with print workshop, Gemini G.E.L, Los Angeles.

Joins a group of artist who withdraw their work from the US Pavilion in the Venice Biennale in protest of the war. Participates in Art for Peace. Moves permanently to Captiva, Florida although keeps his gallery in New York. Creates the first Earth Day poster.

Establishes Untitled Press, Inc., Florida.

Rauschenberg and Gemini G.E.L settle a lawsuit brought against them by Morton Beebe, photographer of an image used in Pull. Receives commission from Rockefeller Center Development Corporation, New York.

Named Officier de l’Ordre des Arts et Lettres, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Paris. Named Member of the Board of Directors, Association Internationale de Défense des Artistes – USA. Begins work on The ¼ Mile or 2 Furlong Piece, intended to be the longest piece of art in the world, using techniques employed throughout his career.

Returns to Port Arthur, Texas, for the first time in forty years. Mayor Bernis Sadler declares February 4th ‘Robert Rauschenberg Day’. Receives Grammy Award for Best Album Package for limited edition Talking Heads’s Speaking Tongues. Awarded Honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts by New York University. Awarded the Jerusalem Prize for Arts and Letters. Visits Mexico in preparation for his ROCI (Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange) project. Receives Certificate of Appreciation from the UN Committee against Apartheid. Announces ROCI project in New York.

Begins to use metal and industrial materials more frequently in his work. Receives Award for Excellence in International Cultural Interchange from the World Print Council.

Travels to USSR to meet Minister of Culture in preparation for ROCI project.

Cancels ROCI Berlin due to frustration with East German officials’ resistance to a simultaneaous East Berlin-West Berlin installation. After dismantling of Berlin Wall, Wolfgang Polak, director of the Zentrum für Kunstausstellungen der Deutsche Demokratische Republik immediately contacts Rauschenberg to reinstate arrangements for ROCI Berlin.

The Robert Rauschenberg Foundation is founded.

Inducted into the Florida Artists Hall of Fame, Tallahassee. The final ROCI exhibition, ROCI USA. Awarded 1991 Medal of Merit by the Lotus Club, New York.

Named Commandant de l’Ordre des Arts et Lettres, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communcation, Paris.

The first retrospective donated solely to Rauschenberg’s sculptures at Fort Worth Museum, Texas. Receives Leonardo da Vinci World Award of Arts.

Awarded First Prize in Contemporary Art, ARCO International Contemporary Art Fair, Madrid

Presented Butler Medal for Life Achievement in the Arts as a surprise by the Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio

Suffers a stroke that leaves his right arm partially paralyzed. He is able to continue to work with his left arm and the help of his assistants.

Recieves the first the Angels of the Arts Award for Lifetime Achievement, Lee County Alliance for the Arts, Fort Myers, Florida
Elected as an Honorary Royal Academician, Royal Academy of the Arts, London

Died in Captivia, FL



Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, NY

Galerie Sonnabend, Paris
The Jewish Museum, New York, NY

Robert Rauschenberg, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY

'Synapsis Shuffle', Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY

Musée Maillol, Fondation Dina Vierny, Paris, France
Waddington Galleries, London, England

'Short Stories', Pacewildenstein, New York, NY

'Tribute 21', Centre des arts, Enghien-les-Bains
John Berggruen Gallery, San Francisco, CA
'Paintings, Screenprints & Lithographs', Ferrara, Palazzo dei Diamanti

Bernard Jacobson Gallery, London, England
'Rauschenberg – Rosenquist – Lichtenstein', London, England
'Robert Rauschenberg: on and off the wall', Musee d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain Nice, Nice, France
'Robert Rauschenberg – Combines', organized by The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, CA in association with The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY
'Robert Rauschenberg: Scenarios and Short Stories', Paul and Lulu Hillard University Art Museum, Lafayette, IN
'Robert Rauschenberg', Locks Gallery, Philadelphia, PA
'Robert Rauschenberg', Miami Art Museum, Miami, FL

'Robert Rauschenberg', Centre Pompidou – Musee National d’Art Moderne, Paris, France
'Robert Rauschenberg', Gallery Hyundai, Seoul, South Korea
'Robert Rauschenberg', Moca the Geffen Contemporary, Los Angeles, CA
'Robert Rauschenberg: Spread and Scale', Galerie Jamileh, Weber, Zurich, Switzerland
'Art from Life: Prints by Robert Rauschenberg', Cantor Arts Center at Stanford University, Stanford, CA
'Focus Room. Robert Rauschenberg', Tate Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
'Robert Rauschenberg: Scenarios and Short Stories', Jepson Center for the Arts, Savannah, GA
'Rauschenberg: Prints', Jim Kempner Fine Art, New York, NY

'Rauschenberg. Express', Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain
'Nothing and Everything', Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco, CA
'Robert Rauschenberg: Cardboards and Related Pieces', The Menil Collection, Houston, TX
'Robert Rauschenberg', Galleri Faurschou, Copenhagen, Denmark
'Let the World In', The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
'Robert Rauschenberg: em viagem 70-76', Museu Serralves – Museu de Arte Contemporanea, Porto, Portugal
'Robert Rauschenberg', Galerie Lelong, Paris, France
'Transfer Drawings from the 1960s', Jonathon O’Hara Gallery, New York
'Selected Works', Galerie Micahel Schultz, Berlin, Germany
'Robert Rauschenberg', Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden
'Three Decades', Faurschou, Bejing
'Scenarios and runts', Jamileh Weber, Zurich

'Robert Rauschenberg: Runts', Pace Wildenstein, New York, NY
'Robert Rauschenberg, Artist-Citizen: Posteres for a Better World', Bob Rauschenberg Gallery, Ft. Myers, FL
'Whatever is There is a Truth', Haggetry Museum of Art, Milwaukee, WI
'Robert Rauschenberg, The Lotus Series', Larissa Goldston Gallery, New York City, NY; Greenfield Sacks Gallery, Santa Monica, CA
'Robert Rauschenberg: Prints/Editions 1962-78', The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, MN
'Robert Rauschenberg in the Collection of the Long Beach Museum of Art', Long Beach Museum of Art, Long Beach, CA
'Rauschenberg: Booster', Henry Art Gallery, Seattle, WA
'Rauschenberg', University of South Florida Contemporary Art Museum, Tampa, FL
'Robert Rauschenberg – Travelling ’70 – ’76', Haus der Kunst, Munich, Germany
'Robert Rauschenberg: Scenarios', Griffin Contemporary, Santa Monica, CA
'Robert Rauschenberg, grafica 1976-2000', La Caja Negra, Madrid, Spain

ACE Gallery, Los Angeles, California
'Robert Rauschenberg: Gluts', Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, Italy
Weisman Art Museum, Minneapolis, MN

The Madison Museum of Contemporary Art, Madison, WI
'Rauschenberg at Gemini', Armory Center for the Arts, Pasadena, CA

Grand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids, MI

'Jammers', Gagosian Gallery, Britannia Street, London, England

'Robert Rauschenberg: Works on Metal', Gagosian Gallery, Beverly Hills, CA
'Rauschenberg: China/America Mix', Bob Rauschenberg Gallery, Florida South Western State College, Ft. Myers, FL
'Rauschenberg: Collecting and Connecting', Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University, Durham, NC
'Robert Rasuchenberg: The Fulton Street Studio, 1953–1954', Craig F. Starr Gallery, New York, NY

'Gilt (1983) by Robert Rauschenberg', Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain
'Global Matters: Rauschenberg Print Media 1968–1975', University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Art History Gallery, Milwaukee, WI

'Robert Rauschenberg', Tate Modern, London


The Corcoran Biennial, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
'Documenta' 2, Kassel

'The Art of Assemblage', Museum of Modern Art, New York

The Corcoran Biennial, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

XXXII Esposizione Biennale Internazionale d’Arte, Venice
'Documenta' 3, Kassel

'Dada, Surrealism and Their Heritage', Museum of Modern Art, New York
'Documenta' 4, Kassel

'Documenta' 6, Kassel

Colección Onnasch, MACBA, Barcelona, Spain
'Points of Departure I: Connecting with Contemporary Art', SFMOMA, San Francisco, CA

'Iconoclash: Beyond the Image Wars in Sciences, Religion and Art', SFMOMA, San Francisco, CA
'Points of Departure II: Connecting with Contemporary Art', Pace/McGill Gallery, New York, NY
'From Pop to Now: selections from the Sonnabend Collection,
Robert Rauschenberg and Robert Heinecken', The Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery - Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY

'A Way With Words', John Berggruen Gallery, San Francisco, CA
'Heaven & Hell', Barbara Mathes Gallery, NY

'Pop from San Francisco Collections', SFMOMA, San Francisco, CA

'50 Years at Pace: The Abstract Expressionist and Pop Art Years', Pace Gallery, New York, NY

'Sculpture', Gagosian Gallery, Hong Kong
'Crash: Homage to JG Ballard', Gagosian Gallery, Britannia Street, London, England
'Burning, Bright: A Short History of the Light Bulb', Pace Gallery, New York, NY

'Mirages d’Orient, Grenades et Figues de Barbarie, Chasse-croise en Mediterrane', Collection Lambert, Avignon, France
'Lifelike', New Orleans Museum of Art, New Orleans, LA
'Dancing around the Bride: Cage, Cunningham, Johns, Rauschenberg, and Duchamp', Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA
'Fast Forward: Modern Moments 1913 – 2013', High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA
'We the People. Robert Rauschenberg Foundation Space', New York, NY
'Cara Domani: Opera dalla Collezione Ernesto Esposito (Works from the Ernest Esposito Collection)', MAMbo-Museo d’Arte Moderna di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
'Shock of the News', National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
'Spectres of Artaud: Language and the Arts circa 1952', Museo Nacional Centro de Art Reina Sofia, Madrid, Spain
'The Last Days of Pompeii: Decadence, Apocalypse, Resurrection', The Getty Villa, Malibu, CA
'Art Drive! The BMW Art Car Collection 1975-2010 (Part of the London 2012 Festival)', Great Eastern Car Park, London, England
'Art of Another Kind: International Abstraction and the Guggenheim, 1949-1960', Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY
'In Deed: Certificates of Authenticity in Art', John M. Flaxman Library Special Collections, The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL
'Print/Out', Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
'Guggenheim Collection: The American Avant-Garde 1945-1980', Palazzodelle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy

'The Bride and the Bachelors: Duchamp with Cage, Cunningham, Rauschenberg and Johns', Barbican Art Gallery, London, England
'The Sounds of Silence', UC Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Center, Berkeley, CA

'Robert Rauschenberg and the “Five From Louisiana.”', New Orleans Museum of Art, New Orleans, LA
'Rawing after Modernism, or how the future affects the past', The Drawing Biennial, National Gallery, Oslo, Norway
'The Avant-Garde Collection', Orange County Museum of Art, Newport Beach, CA
'From Rauschenberg to Jeff Koons: The Ileana Sonnabend Collection', Ca’Pesaro, Venice, Italy
'Rothko to Richter: Mark-Making in Abstract Painting from the Collection of Preston H. Haskell', Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
'Georg Baselitz, Anselm Kiefer, Harmony Korine, Robert Rauschenberg, Julian Schnabel, Rudolf Stingel, Franz West', Gagosian Gallery, New York, NY

'America Is Hard to See', Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY
'Selections from the Museum’s Collection: Modern and Contemporary Art', Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TX
'Andy Warhol sul comò: Opere dalla collezione Rosetta Barabino (Warhol in the closet: works from the Rosetta Barabino collection)', Museo di Arte Contemporanea di Villa Croce, Genoa, Italy
'International Pop', Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN
'Fifty for Fifty: Gifts on the Occasion of LACMA’s Anniversary', Los Angeles County Museum of Art, CA
'Frontiers Reimagined: Art That Connects Us', Museo di Palazzo Grimani, Venice, Italy. Organized by Sundaram Tagore and Tagore Foundation International, 56th Venice Biennale collateral event



International Grand Prize in Painting, 32nd Esposizione Biennale Internazionale d’Arte, Venice

Special Medal of Award, American Institute of Graphic Arts
William A. Clarke Gold Medal for Axle (1964), 29th Biennial Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Mayor’s Award of Honor for Arts and Culture, Commission for Cultural Affairs, New York

Gold Medal, Biennial of Graphic Art, Fredrikstad, Norway

Grammy Award, Best Album Package, Talking Heads’ Speaking in Tongues

National Academy of Recording Artists, Los Angeles

Golden Plate Award, American Academy of Achievement, Washington, D.C.

National Medal of Arts, National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, D.C.

Praemium Imperiale for Painting, Japan Art Association, Tokyo

Gold Medal for Painting, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York

Honorary Royal Academician, Royal Academy of Arts, London

Julio González International Prize, Conseil de la Generalitat Valenciana and Institut Valencià d’Art Modern, Spain
Honoree, Guggenheim International Gala, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York 

Lifetime Achievement Award, Texas Medal of Arts

Honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts, Kansas City Art Institute


Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York
Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois
Guggenheim Museum, New York
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington D.C.
Menil Collection, Houston, Texas
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts
Museum of Modern Art, New York
Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig, Vienna
National Portrait Gallery - Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California
Tate Gallery, London
Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne